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A Brief Review of the Literature It is quite common for publications involving any treatment of the life of the Buddha to refer to the few classic studies of the topic, invariably citing works such as Edward J.
” As an artist, Hakuin used calligraphy and painting to create “visual Dharma”—teachings that powerfully express the nature of enlightenment.Bareau's Les premiers conciles bouddhiques and my own "A Review of Scholarship on the Buddhist Councils," carefully detail all the specific events of the first, second, and third councils, as well as the non-canonical council which occurred between the second and third council, and which was the occasion for the beginning of Buddhist sectarianism. E., most participants suggested that the Buddha died within approximately a few decades on either side of 400 B. On the surface, this new dating for the Buddha's death doesn't seem ter-ribly earthshaking, either for Indian Buddhist history or for ancillary stu-dies such as a consideration of Upali and his lineage of Vinayadharas. Because of this new date for the Buddha's demise, virtually everything we know about the earliest Indian Buddhism, and especially its sectarian movement, is once again called into question.Further work by Janice Nattier and me refined Bareau's presumptions in Les sects bouddhiques du petit vehicule, and offered what has now become the definitive statement of the beginnings of Buddhist sectarianism, arguing that the initial sanghabheda focused solely on matters of Vinaya, but rather than representing disciplinary laxity on the part of the future Mahasamghikas, resulted from attempted Vinaya expansion on the part of the future Sthaviras ("Mahasamghika" 237-272). Dates for the first, second, and third canonical councils--once thought to be certain--must now be reexamined.Zen, or Ch’an in Chinese, is a meditative tradition aimed at directly perceiving our Buddha nature.Our Top-10 lists aim to represent a particular topic through the selected outstanding books, balancing classic texts and latest titles, popular books and less known must-reads.