Dating annals

Since the Britons themselves (who, along with much of western Europe, spoke Celtic languages) left no literary record, their tribal names have come from Roman sources.

Occasionally, a tribe can have the same, or a very similar, name as another.

For administrative purposes, those parts of Roman Britain which were not under direct military control, were divided into ‘civitates’ (singular: ‘civitas’) – the equivalent of counties.

A civitas was usually based on an existing tribal division, and retained the name of the tribe concerned. AD150, Greco-Egyptian mathematician, astronomer and geographer, Claudius Ptolemaeus (c.100–c.170), known as Ptolemy, produced a set of coordinates which allow a rudimentary map of the world as he knew it to be drawn.

Of this they are impatient; they are reduced to subjection, not as yet to slavery.” appear as a particular tribe, living in the vicinity of the Great Glen.the Ocean has islands which are called Britain and Ireland and which are located opposite the Gauls in the general direction of Spain ...Britain, an island in the Ocean, extends for a long distance northward; to the south, it has the Gauls...But a general survey inclines me to believe that the Gauls established themselves in an island so near to them.Their religious belief may be traced in the strongly-marked British superstition.

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It was the opinion of Julius Caesar, and appears to be achieved by imagining that the coast of Gaul ran in a virtually straight line from the Pyrenees to the Rhine – in effect, rotating the British Isles, in an anti-clockwise direction, towards Spain.(See: First Contacts.)The map on the right was produced, to Ptolemy's specification, in the 15th century.

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